1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar).
- January 14 - Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, Dutch politician
- January 17 - Auguste Comte, "father" of sociology
- January 20 - Anson Jones, 5th and last President of Texas (d. 1858)
- March 13 - Abigail Fillmore, First Lady of the United States
- March 30 - Luise Hensel , poet (d. 1876)
- April 2 - August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, German lyricist, writer (d. 1874)
- April 26 - Eugène Delacroix, French painter
- April 28 - Duncan Forbes, linguist
- June 29 - Giacomo Leopardi, Italian writer (d. 1837)
- October 2 - Charles Albert of Savoy, King of Sardinia
- December 24 - Adam Mickiewicz, Polish poets and author.
- William Abbot - English actor