1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar).
- February - Napoleon attacks Russia
- February 6 - Naval Engagement
- February 8 - Battle of Eylau - Napoleon defeats Russians under General Benigssen
- February 19 - In Alabama, Former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr is arrested for treason.
- March 2 - The U.S. Congress passes an act to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States ... from any foreign kingdom, place, or country."
- March 25 - The Slave Trade Act becomes law abolishing slavery in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- March 29 - H. W. Olbers discovers the asteroid Vesta
- May 22 - Sufficient evidence is presented to a grand jury to indict former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr for treason.
- June - Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
- July 5 - Disastrous British attack to Buenos Aires
- July 7 - Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia.
- July 13 - With the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the last Stuart claimant to the throne of the United Kingdom, the movement of Jacobitism ends.
- August 17 - The Clermont, Robert Fulton's first American steamboat, leaves New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
- September 1 - Former US Vice President Aaron Burr is acquitted of treason. He had been accused of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Mexico to become part of an independent republic.
- September 2 - September 7 - British Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon. 30% of the city was destroyed and 2000 citizens were killed.
- October 9 - Serfdom is abolished in Prussia by law.
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