1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar).
- January 3, Britain seizes control of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
- March 2, President Andrew Jackson signs the Force Act, which authorizes him to use troops to enforce Federal law in South Carolina.
- June 6, US President Andrew Jackson becomes the first President to ride a train.
- May 11, French-American farmhand Antoine le Blanc murders family of three.
- September 29, the infant Isabella II becomes Queen of Spain, under the regency of her mother, Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. Her uncle Don Carlos, Conde de Molina challenges her claim, beginning the First Carlist War.
- December 14, assassination of Kaspar Hauser, dies three days later in December 17
- Charles Babbage described his analytical engine. (see also history of computing hardware)
- The dawn of biochemistry: discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, by Anselme Payen
- The British Parliament passes the Slavery Abolition Act giving all slaves in the British Empire their freedom.
- February 11, Melville Weston Fuller 8th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court
- February 28, Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (d. 1913)
- May 7, Johannes Brahms, German composer (d. 1897)
- July 27, Thomas George Bonney, geologist (d. 1923)
- October 21, Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor of dynamite, creator of the Nobel Prize (d. 1896)
- November 6, Jonas Lie, Norwegian author
- November 9, Émile Gaboriau, writer (d. 1873)
- November 12, Alexander Borodin, Russian composer (d. 1887)
- April 22, Richard Trevithick, English inventor (b. 1771)
- May 11, Sayers family, Morristown, New Jersey farmers
- July 2, Gervasio Antonio de Posadas, Argentine leader
- September 6, Antoine le Blanc, French-American murderer (executed)
- September 27, Roy, Ram Mohan, Hindu reformer (b. 1772)
- September 29, King Ferdinand VII of Spain
- December 17, Kaspar Hauser, German foundling
- Ninian Edwards, Governor of Illinois and Senator from Illinois (b. 1775)
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