1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar).
- January 8 - African-American men granted the right to vote in the District of Columbia
- January 11 - Benito Juárez becomes Mexican president again
- January 30 - Emperor Komei of Japan dies. Crown Prince Mutsuhito is expected to become the next Emperor of Japan.
- January 31 – Maronite nationalist leader Karam leaves Lebanon on board of a French ship for Algeria
- February 3 - Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu abdicates, and the late Emperor Komei's son, Prince Mutshuhito becomes Emperor Meiji of Japan. End of the Late Tokugawa shogunate.
- February 17 - The first ship passes through the Suez Canal
- March 1 - Nebraska is admitted as the 37th U.S. state.
- March 16 - First publication of an article by Joseph Lister outlining the discovery of antiseptic surgery, in The Lancet.
- March 29 - The British North America Act receives royal assent, forming the Dominion of Canada in an event known as Confederation. This unites the Province of Canada, Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia as of July 1. Ottawa becomes the capital, and John A. Macdonald becomes the Dominion's first prime minister.
- March 30 - Alaska is purchased for $7.2 million from Alexander II of Russia, about 2 cent/acre ($4.19/km²), by United States Secretary of State William H. Seward. The news media call this "Seward's Folly."
- April 1 - Strait Settlement of Singapore, fomerly ruled from Calcutta, becomes a Crown Colony under the jurisdiction of the Colonial Office in London
- May 29 - Austro-Hungarian agreement called Ausgleich ("the Compromise") is born through Act 12, which established the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy; on June 8 Emperor Francis Joseph was crowned King of Hungary
- July 1 - Canada Day, recognizing the creation of Canada by the British North America Act.
- July 17 - In Boston, Massachusetts, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine is established as the first dental school in the United States.
- July 21 - Missionary Thomas Baker killed and eaten in Viti Levu, Fiji
- September 2 - Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor of Japan marries Ichijo Masako . The Empress consort is thereafter known as Lady Haruko .
- October 21 - 'Manifest Destiny': Medicine Lodge Treaty - Near Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma.
- December 2 - In a New York City theater, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States.
- December 4 - Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Order of the Patrons of Husbandry (better known today as the Grange movement).
- January 8 - Emily Greene Balch, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize 1946 (d. 1961)
- January 17 - Carl Laemmle, film executive (d. 1939)
- January 18 - Rubén Darío, Nicaraguan poet (d. 1916)
- January 21 - Ludwig Thoma , narrator, dramatist and lyricist (d. 1921)
- January 21 - Maxime Weygand, French General
- February 7 - Laura Ingalls Wilder, author (d. 1957)
- February 11 - August W Messer , German philosopher/educator/psychologist.
- February 18 - Hedwig Courths-Mahler , novelist (d. 1950)
- February 21 - Otto Hermann Kahn, millionaire and benefactor (d. 1934)
- March 25 - Arturo Toscanini, conductor (d. 1957)
- March 29 - Cy Young, United States baseball player
- April 2 - Eugen Sandow, body builder, circus performer (d. 1925).
- April 7 - Holger Pedersen, Dutch linguist (d. 1953)
- April 9 - Chris Watson, third Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1941)
- April 16 – René Boylesve, French author (d. 1926)
- April 16 - Wilbur Wright of the Wright brothers, American co-inventor of the airplane.
- May 3 - J.T. Hearne Middlesex medium-fast bowler and fourth highest first-class wicket-taker (d. 1944)
- May 6 - Mary of Teck, later Queen Consort of George V of the United Kingdom
- May 14 - Kurt Eisner, politician and publicist (d. 1919)
- May 26 - Mary of Teck (d. 1953)
- June 4 - Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim, former President of Finland (d. 1951)
- June 8 - Frank Lloyd Wright, architect (d. 1959)
- June 28 - Luigi Pirandello, Italian writer (d. 1936)
- July 28 - Charles Dillon Perrine, astronomer (d. 1951)
- August 12 - Edith Hamilton, educator and author
- August 22 - Maximilian Bircher-Benner, Swiss physician and Muesli inventor (d. 1939)
- October 25 - Józef Dowbór-Muśnicki, Polish general, commander of Greater Poland Uprising in 1919 (d.1937)
- October 31 - David Graham Phillips, journalist / novelist (d. 1911)
- November 7 - Marie Curie, Scientist and Nobel Prize winner due to research in the field of radioactivity.
- December 23 - Madame C. J. Walker, first African American millionaire.
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