- Alternative use: Baja California Peninsula
Baja California is the northernmost state of Mexico; it is mostly located on the northern half of the Baja California peninsula. To avoid confusion it is sometimes (albeit incorrectly) referred to as Baja California Norte.
The state is bordered on the north by the United States, the west by the Pacific Ocean, the east by Sonora and the Sea of Cortez, and the south by Baja California Sur.
The state has a population of 2,750,000 (2003 estimate), much more than sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south.
Over 75% of the population live in the cities of Tijuana and Mexicali.
- 1804: The Spanish colony of California is divided into Alta ("upper") and Baja ("lower") California at the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south.
- In 1850, after Alta California had been annexed by the United States, Baja California is further divided into northern and southern territories.
- 1952: Northern Baja California becomes the 29th state of Mexico. The southern portion, below 28°N, remains a federally administered territory.
Baja California is subdivided into five municipalities (municipios). See municipalities of Baja California.