Chattanooga (informally known as Chatty or Chatt-town), is the 4th largest city in Tennesseee, and the seat of Hamilton County, Tennessee in the United States of America. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 155,554.
Located in Southeast Tennessee on the Tennessee River, near the border of Georgia, and at the junction of three interstate highways, transportation has always been an important aspect of Chattanooga's development.
The city is probably best known for the 1941 big-band swing song "Chattanooga Choo Choo" by Glenn Miller, but it has grown significantly since its days as a railroad hub and industrial center. Despite a new emphasis on the technology and service sectors, Chattanooga maintains ties to the past and still serves as a major freight hub with Norfolk Southern and CSX running trains on their own (and each other's) lines. The Norfolk Southern Railway's enormous DeButts Yard is just east of downtown, Shipp's Yard and CSX's Wauhatchie Yard are in the south of the city. Indeed, the two railroad companies are among the largest individual landowners in the city (the Federal Government is another). The Tennessee Valley Railroad Museum, the largest historic operating railroad in the South, and the Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway also provides railroad service in Chattanooga. There's hardly a location in the city where one can't hear a train whistle at least once daily.
Chattanooga is the current home of the National Model Railroad Association and the city's public transportation provider is the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority. Owing to its industrial past, the city is currently fighting a major battle against air pollution and groundwater contamination. A new weapon in this battle is the institution of mandatory emissions testing for all automobiles, which has been mandated by the local county government.
During the American Civil War on November 23, 1863, the Battle of Chattanooga III began when Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant reinforced troops at Chattanooga and counter-attacked Confederate troops. The next day the Battle of Lookout Mountain was fought near the town. These were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaign, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgia and moving southeastward.
In more modern times, the city has received national recognition for the renaissance of its beautiful downtown and redevelopment of its riverfront.
The local economy includes a diversified mix of manufacturing and service industries, four colleges, and several preparatory schools. "Sustainability" is a key concept for Chattanooga's development, especially after the crash of the industrial economy due to overseas labor.
Chattanooga is the corporate headquarters and home of Krystal, Chattem , UnumProvident , The Chattanooga Bakery (home of the Moon pie), and Miller Industries , the largest tow truck manufacturer in the world. Chattanooga is also home to the Tennessee Valley Authority, a self-funding government agency which operates numerous power plants in the South. Following the city's industrial decline, many businesses in the banking and insurance industries. The city is home to large branch offices of Cigna, Blue Cross, AT&T and UBS.
The city boasts the most productive affordable housing program in the nation, is notable for leveraging development funds through effective public/private partnerships, has significant civic involvement, and was one of the first US cities to effectively use a citizen visioning process to set specific long-range goals to enrich the lives of residents and visitors.
The current mayor is Ron Littlefield , who was elected in a close run-off election in April 2005.
Within the last ten years the city has won 3 national awards for outstanding "livability", and 9 Gunther Blue Ribbon Awards for excellence in housing and consolidated planning.
The second largest campus of the University of Tennessee System is in Chattanooga.
There are several institutions of higher learning in Chattanooga. The most prominent is the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, with over 8,000 students. Several miles from UTC is Chattanooga State Technical Community College . Other institutions are the privately-run Tennessee Temple University and Miller-Motte Technical College , as well as Covenant College, which overlooks the city from atop Lookout Mountain.
Chattanooga has traditionally marketed its tourist spots very aggressively, including the Tennessee Aquarium (a major expansion, coidciding with a completion of a major riverfront development project, is slated to open in May 2005), caverns, and developments along the Tennessee River. The red-and-black painted "See Rock City" barns along highways in the Southeast are remnants of a now classic Americana tourism campaign to attract visitors to the Rock City tourist attraction in nearby Lookout Mountain, Georgia. Chattanooga maintains a friendly rivalry with the other major city of eastern Tennessee, Knoxville.
Chattanooga, since it is the birthplace of the tow truck, is the fitting home of the International Towing and Recovery Hall of Fame and Museum .
Chattanooga is also notable for the Riverbend Festival, an annual week-long music festival in the downtown area that is known for drawing huge crowds from in and around the Tennessee Valley.
Chattanooga is the home of NCAA Division I-AA national football championship game, and hosts the national softball championships every year.
The Chattanooga Lookouts , a class AA Southern League baseball team, play at BellSouth Park downtown; free parking is provided on first-come, first served basis by several local buisnesses. The Lookouts are perennial participants in the season-end playoffs and have a loyal following. What's more, ticket prices are very low, especially in comparison to major league clubs. A major league ticket can cost around USD$15 for the "cheap seats ." As of 2005, however, the most expensive seats at BellSouth Park cost only USD$8.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 155,554 people, 65,499 households, and 39,626 families residing in the city. The population density is 444.2/km² (1,150.5/mi²). There are 72,108 housing units at an average density of 205.9/km² (533.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 59.71% White, 36.06% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.54% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. 2.11% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 65,499 households out of which 25.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% are married couples living together, 17.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.5% are non-families. 33.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.29 and the average family size is 2.92.
In the city the population is spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 15.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 37 years. For every 100 females there are 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $32,006, and the median income for a family is $41,318. Males have a median income of $31,375 versus $23,267 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,689. 17.9% of the population and 14.0% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 27.0% of those under the age of 18 and 13.8% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
The city is located at latitude 35°4' North, longitude 85°15' West.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 370.8 km² (143.2 mi²). 350.2 km² (135.2 mi²) of it is land and 20.6 km² (8.0 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 5.56% water.
The most prominent natural features in and around Chattanooga are the Tennessee River and the surrounding mountains. A Tennessee Valley Authority dam creates Chickamauga Lake north of the downtown area. Four automobile bridges, one railroad trestle, and one pedestrian bridge cross the river.
Transport is served by Interstate 75 to Atlanta and Knoxville, Interstate 24 to Nashville, and Interstate 59 to Birmingham. Chattanooga and the surrounding area is served by Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport . Rail freight is offered by CSX and Norfolk Southern.
Neighborhoods of Chattanooga
- Alton Park
- Central Business District
- East Brainerd
- East Chattanooga
- East Lake
- Fort Wood (a National Historic District)
- Highland Park
- North Chattanooga (also known as NorthChatt or the Northsore District)
- Orchard Knob
- Rossville (not to be confused with the nearby city of Rossville, Georgia)
- Saint Elmo
- East Ridge
- Lookout Mountain
- Red Bank
- Signal Mountain
Major Surface Routes
Other Major Streets
- 4th Street
- 23rd Street
- 38th Street
- Amnicola Highway
- Bailey Avenue
- Dodds Avenue
- East Brainerd Road
- Gunbarrel Road
- Hixson Pike
- Market Street
- Martin Luther King, Jr. Blvd.
- Moore Road
- Ringgold Road
- Riverfront Parkway
- Saint Elmo Avenue
- Shallowford Road
In addition to these streets, there are also four tunnels in the city.
- Bachmann Tubes, which carry Ringgold Road into the neighboring town of East Ridge.
- Missionary Ridge Tunnels, which carry McCallie and Bailey Avenues through Missionary Ridge where the route continues as Brainerd Road.
- Stringer's Ridge Tunnel, which carries Cherokee Boulevard through Stringer's Ridge where the route continues as Dayton Avenue.
- Wilcox Tunnel, which carries Wilcox Boulevard through Missionary Ridge.
Since both NS and CSX both run through Chattanooga, here are the lines that run through the town (the AAR codes are used for the following railroads: NS for Norfolk Southern, CSXT for CSX Transportation, TVRM for Tennessee Valley Railroad, and C&C for Chattooga & Chickamauga Railway):
Media and Communications
The city of Chattanooga is served by numerous local, regional and national media outlets. Thes media outlets reach an estimated 500,000 people in three states: Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia (U.S. State)
The Chattanooga Times Free Press  is published each morning. The Times was once published by Adolphus Ochs who also operated the New York Times. The two newspapers now have different ownership. There is also a local, independently published arts paper called The Pulse
Some of the radio stations in Chattanooga include:
Chattanooga has numerous television stations, some of which are beginning to offer HDTV.
- WRCB channel 3, NBC affilliate - 
- WOOT channel 6, UPN affilliate
- WTVC channel 9, ABC affilliate - 
- WDEF channel 12, CBS affillaite - 
- W26BE channel 26, independent
- WYHB channel 39, independent
- WDSI channel 61, Fox Network affilliate - 
See also List of television stations in Tennessee
The following people were born or lived in Chattanooga:
- Hugh Beaumont, actor.
- Dixie Carter, actress.
- James B. Frazier, governor of Tennessee, 1903-1905.
- Irvine W. Grote, chemist, invented Rolaids .
- Roland Hayes, tenor.
- Henry H. Horton, governor of Tennessee, 1927-1933.
- Samuel L. Jackson, actor.
- Estes Kefauver, US Senator.
- William Gibbs McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury under Woodrow Wilson.
- Grace Moore, soprano, actress.
- Usher Raymond, rhythm and blues singer.
- Bessie Smith, blues singer.
- Dennis Haskins, actor
Chattanooga is currently twinned with:
- Wuxi, China
- Hamm, Germany
- Giv'atayim, Israel
- Gangneung, Korea
- Nizhnii Tagil, Russia
Chattanooga Sister Cities
Chattooga and Chickamauga Railway