Dalian (), formerly Lüda or Luta, is an ice-free seaport and a sub-provincial city in eastern Liaoning Province of the Northeastern People's Republic of China (Manchuria).
One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkou (Port Arthur), formerly a city in its own right as well.
Dalian is located west of the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay) and east of Bohai Sea. With a coastline of 1,906 km, it governs the southernmost Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs.
Part of the State of Yan in the Spring and Autumn Period, Dalian became a small town in the 1880s, when the Qing Empire established bridges, cannon platforms and camps there. Named after the Dalianwan Bay (大连湾) of the Yellow Sea northeast of the peninsula, it was officially called Dalian in 1899, and the term was first used in October 1879 by Li Hongzhang in a document.
Dalian of south Pulandian was occupied by the British in 1858, returned to the Chinese in the 1880s, and then occupied by Japan in 1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War. From 1898-1905, it was occupied by the Russians and renamed Dalny (Qingniwaqiao 青泥洼桥 of Zhongshan District, Dalian) and Port Arthur (Lüshunkou). After the Russo-Japanese war Port Arthur was conceded to Japan (Treaty of Portsmouth), who set up the Kwantung Leased Territory or Guandongzhou. Since the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932, the sovereignty of the territory moved from China to Manchukuo. Japan still leased it from Manchukuo. In 1937, the modern Dalian City was enlarged and modernized by the Japanese as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun (Lushun).
After World War II, Dalian was not returned to China, but taken over by Soviets with theoretical Chinese overlordship (see Yalta Conference), and was returned to full Chinese control in 1955, although the first communist Chinese mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (旅大行政公署) was elected in 1945. The name Lüda was formed from the initial letters of Lüshunkou and Dalian. Because of the sudden closure of many Japanese businesses, many Dalian residents were out of work for a while.
On December 1, 1950, Lüda was made into a city again. From March 12, 1953 to August 1, 1954, it became a municipality. The city's name was changed from Lüda to Dalian on March 5, 1981, after the State Council approved it on February 9. It was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial city in 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions.
The city contains 6 districts, 3 county-level cities, and 1 county:
| Pinyin || Hanzi || Area |
|Ganjingzi ||甘井子 || 491||540,000
|Lüshunkou||旅顺口 || 506||210,000
|Xigang ||西岗区 || 26||330,000
|Zhongshan ||中山区 || 43||370,000
|Shahekou ||沙河口 || 49||600,000
|Jinzhou ||金州区 ||1390||660,000
|Wafangdian ||瓦房店市|| 3791||1,030,000
|Pulandian ||普兰店市|| 2923||820,000
|Zhuanghe ||庄河市 || 3866||900,000
|Changhai ||长海县 || 152||90,000
Ganjingzi, Zhongshan, Xigang, Shahekou make up the urban centre. Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula. There are 74 sub-districts and 127 town/townships (11 of which are ethnic). (see Political divisions of China#Levels)
There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (对外开放先导区):
- The Development Zone (开发区)
- The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
- The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
- The Golden Pebble Beach National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)
A new harbor for oil tankers, at the terminus of an oil pipeline from the Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian is the largest petroleum port in China, and also the 3rd largest port overall. Accordingly, Dalian is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production.
Dalian has been given many benefits by the Chinese government, including the title of "open-city," (1984) which allows it considerable foreign investment (see Special Economic Zone).
Dalian is served by Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport.
Every September Dalian hosts the Dalian International Fashion Festival. This festival is a chance for many major foreign companies to showcase their new products and sign up buyers. Before the festival, the city holds an opening ceremony attended by government officials as well as famous stars of the entertainment world.
Dalian is the home of three zoological parks: Dalian Forest Zoo, Shengya Ocean World, and Polar World. The Forest Zoo has a free-range animal section as well as a more traditional zoo. Shengya Ocean World includes an underwater conveyor through a transparent tunnel. Polar World is the only park devoted to polar animals in China.
Dalian is considered a "model city" from which other urban planning in China is to be inspired.
Dalian is a sister city of Kitakyūshū (Japan), Le Havre (France), Glasgow (Scotland), Vancouver (Canada), Bremen (Germany), Incheon (South Korea), Oakland (USA), Rostock (Germany), Houston (USA), Maizuru (Japan), Vladivostok (Russia), Pointe-Noire (Congo).
The Dalian's soccer club is Dalian Shide, one of twelve teams in the Chinese Super League.
Prior to 2000 they were known as Dalian Wanda. Many regard Dalian Shide as China's premier soccer club having achieved success as:
Jia A Champions 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002
Asian Club Championship Runners-up 1997
Asian Cup Winners' Cup Runners-up 2001
Chinese Super Cup Winners 1997, 2001, 2003
China FA Cup Winners 2001
The German anatomist Gunther von Hagens runs a plastination center in Dalian.
Colleges and universities