List of phytochemicals and foods they are prominent in
The following is a list of phytochemicals present in commonly consumed foods.
- flavonoids (polyphenols) – red, blue, purple pigments.
- quercetin – garlic, onions, tea, wine, apples, cranberries, buckwheat, beans.
- gingerol – ginger.
- kaempferol – strawberries, gooseberries, cranberries, peas, brassicates, chives.
- resveratrol – grape skins and seeds, wine, nuts, peanuts.
- rutin – citrus fruits, buckwheat, parsley, tomato, apricot, rhubarb, tea.
- anthocyanins (flavonals) – red wine, many red, purple or blue fruits and vegetables.
- pelargonidin – bilberry, raspberry, strawberry.
- peonidin – bilberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach.
- cyanidin – red apple & pear, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, peach, plum, hawthorn, loganberry, cocoa.
- delphinidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- malvidin – bilberry, blueberry.
- isoflavones (phytoestrogens)
- daidzein (formononetin) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
- genistein (biochanin A) – soy, alfalfa sprouts, red clover, chickpeas, peanuts, other legumes.
- glycitein – soy.
- coumestans (phytoestrogens)
- phenolic acids
- ellagic acid – walnuts, strawberries, cranberries, blackberries, guava, grapes.
- gallic acid – tea, mango, strawberries, rhubarb, soy.
- salicylic acid – peppermint, licorice, peanut, wheat.
- tannic acid – nettles, tea, berries.
- vanillin – vanilla beans, cloves.
- capsaicin - chilli peppers.
- curcumin – turmeric, mustard. (Oxidizes to vanillin.)
- hydroxycinnamic acids
- caffeic acid – burdock, hawthorn, artichoke, pear, basil, thyme, oregano, apple.
- chlorogenic acid – echinacea, strawberries, pineapple, coffee, sunflower, blueberries.
- cinnamic acid – aloe.
- ferulic acid – oats, rice, artichoke, orange, pineapple, apple, peanut.
- coumarin – citrus fruits, maize.
- lignans (phytoestrogens) – flax seeds and flour, whole grains, berries.
- silymarin – artichokes, milk thistle.
- matairesinol – flax seed, sesame seed, rye bran and meal, oat bran, poppy seed, strawberries, blackcurrants, broccoli.
- secoisolariciresinol – flax seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, zucchini, blackcurrant, carrots.
- carotenoids (tetraterpenoids)
- carotenes - orange pigments
- alpha carotene – to vitamin A, in carrots, pumpkins, maize, tangerine, orange.
- beta carotene – to vitamin A, in dark, leafy greens and red, orange and yellow fruits and vegetables.
- gamma carotene
- delta carotene
- lycopene – tomatoes, grapefruit, watermelon, guava, apricots, carrots.
- phytofluene – star fruit, sweet potato, orange.
- phytoene – sweet potato, orange.
- xanthophylls - yellow pigments
- cantaxanthin – paprika.
- cryptoxanthin – mango, tangerine, orange, papaya, peaches, avocado, pea, grapefruit, kiwi.
- zeaxanthin – spinach, kale, turnip greens, maize, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, oranges.
- lutein – spinach, turnip greens, romaine lettuce, eggs, red pepper, pumpkin, mango, papaya, oranges, kiwi, peaches, squash, legumes, brassicates, prunes, sweet potatoes, honeydew melon, rhubarb, plum, avocado, pear.
- limonene – oils of citrus, cherries, spearmint, dill, garlic, celery, maize, rosemary, ginger, basil.
- perillyl alcohol – citrus oils, caraway, mints.
- saponins – soybeans, beans, other legumes, maize, alfalfa.
- phytosterols – almonds, cashews, peanuts, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole wheat, maize, soybeans, many vegetable oils.
- campesterol - buckwheat.
- beta sitosterol – rice bran, wheat germ, corn oils, fennel, peanuts, soybeans, hawthorn, basil, buckwheat.
- gamma sitosterol
- stigmasterol – buckwheat.
- tocopherols (vitamin E)
- omega-3,6,9 fatty acids – dark-green leafy vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts.
- gamma-linolenic acid – primrose, borage, blackcurrant.
- dithiolthiones (isothiocyanates)
- sulphoraphane – brassicates.
- indoles (glucosinolates)
- indole-3-carbinol – cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, rutabaga, mustard greens.
- thiosulphonates (allium compounds)
- allyl methyl trisulfide – garlic, onions, Leek (vegetable)s, chives, shallots.
- diallyl sulfide – garlic, onions, leeks, chives, shallots.
Other organic acids
- oxalic acid – orange, spinach, rhubarb, tea and coffee, banana, ginger, almond, sweet potato, bell pepper.
- phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate ) – cereals, nuts, sesame seeds, soybeans, wheat, pumpkin, beans, almonds.
- tartaric acid – apricots, apples, sunflower, avocado, grapes.
Disclaimer: This list is at present incomplete and may contain errors. It is the compilation of many months of research but as I am no biochemist some of the categorizations may be inaccurate.
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