Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is one of the gonadotropins, the other being follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
LH is a glycoprotein, that is it a dimeric protein subunit, each of which is connected to a sugar moiety. The structure is similar for FSH, TSH, and hCG. The protein dimer contains 2 polypeptide units, labelled alpha and beta subunit. The alpha subunits of LH, FSH, TSH, and hCG are identical and contain 92 amino acids. The beta subunits vary, and LH has a beta subunit of 121 amino acids that confers the specific biologic action and is responsible to interact with the LH-receptor .The sugar part of the homone is composed of fructose, galactose, mannose, galactosamine , glucosamine, and sialic acid, the latter being critical for its biologic half-life . The half-life of LH is only 20 minutes.
The gene for the alpha subunit is located on chromosome 6p21.1-23. It is expressed in different cells type. The gene for the LH beta subunit is located on chromosome 19q13.3 and expressed in gonadotropes of the pituitary cells and controlled by GnRH.
In both males and females, LH stimulates the production of sex steroids from the gonads. Leydig cells in male testes respond to LH by producing testosterone, while theca cells in the female ovary respond to LH by producing androgens and estrogens.
In females, a LH surge about halfway through the menstrual cycle triggers the onset of ovulation. LH also induces the ovulated follicle to become a corpus luteum, which then secretes progesterone.
LH levels are normally low during childhood and, in women, high after menopause.
Decifient LH activity
- Kallmann syndrome
- Hypothalamic suppression
- Gonadotropin deficiency
- Gonadal suppression therapy
- GnRH antagonist
- GnRH agonist (downregulation)
Excess LH activity
- Pituitary tumor (gonadotropes)
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Gonadal failure
LH is available mixed with FSH in the form of Pergonal and newer preparations of urinary gonadotropins, and pure in the form of recombinant LH.