New Orleans (local pronunciations: , /nuːˈɔɹliːənz/, or /nuːˈɔɹlənz/) (French: La Nouvelle-Orléans, pronounced /lanuvɛl ɔʀleɑ̃/ in standard French accent) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Louisiana. New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana along the Mississippi River, just south of Lake Pontchartrain, and is coextensive with Orleans Parish. The 2000 census put New Orleans's population at 484,674 and the New Orleans metropolitan area's population at 1,337,726.
New Orleans is a Southern city known for its multicultural heritage (especially French and Spanish influences) and its music and cuisine. It is a major tourist destination thanks to its many festivals and celebrations; the most notable annual events are Mardi Gras, Jazz Fest , and the Sugar Bowl.
New Orleans was founded in 1718 and has played an important role in the history of the United States. The city was named in the honor of Philippe, duc d'Orléans, who was regent and ruler of France when the city was founded. This is comparable to New York City which was named in the honor of James, Duke of York, heir to the throne of England
New Orleans is a major port city due to its location near the Gulf of Mexico and along the Mississippi River, making it a hub for goods which travel to and from Latin America. The petroleum industry is also of great importance to the New Orleans economy; many oil rigs are located in the Gulf.
Main article: History of New Orleans
New Orleans was founded in 1718 by the French as La Nouvelle-Orléans, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. The site was selected because it was a rare bit of natural high ground along the flood-prone banks of the lower Mississippi, and was adjacent to a Native American trading route and portage between the Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain via Bayou St. John (known to the natives as Bayou Choupique). A community of French fur trappers and traders had existed along the bayou (in what is now the middle of New Orleans) for at least a decade before the official founding of the city. Nouvelle-Orléans became the capital of French Louisiana in 1722, replacing Biloxi in that role.
In 1763, the colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire. Some of the early French settlers were never quite happy with Spanish rule, and repeatedly petitioned to be returned to French control.
In 1795, Spain granted the United States "Right of Deposit" in New Orleans, allowing Americans to use the city's port facilities. Louisiana reverted to French control in 1801 after Napoleon's conquest of Spain, but in 1803, Napoleon sold Louisiana (which then included portions of more than a dozen present-day states) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. At this time the city of New Orleans had a population of about 10,000 people.
From early days it was noted for its cosmopolitan polyglot population and mixture of cultures. The city grew rapidly, with influxes of Americans, French and Creole French, many of the latter fleeing from the revolution in Haiti. During the War of 1812 the British sent a force to try to conquer the city, but they were defeated by forces led by Andrew Jackson some miles down river from the city at Chalmette, Louisiana on January 8, 1815 (commonly known as the Battle of New Orleans).
1888 German map of New Orleans.
The population of the city doubled in the 1830s and by 1840, the city's population was around 102,000, fourth largest in the U.S, the largest city away from the Atlantic seaboard, as well as the largest in the South.
New Orleans was the capital of the state of Louisiana until 1849, then again from 1865 to 1880. As a principal port it had a leading role in the slave trade, while at the same time having North America's largest community of free persons of color. Early in the American Civil War it was captured by the Union without a battle, and hence was spared the destruction suffered by many other cities of the American South. It retains a historical flavor with a wealth of 19th century structures far beyond the early colonial city boundaries of the French Quarter. The city hosted the 1884 World's Fair, called the World Cotton Centennial. An important attraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the famous red light district called Storyville.
Much of the city is located below sea level between the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, so the city is surrounded by levees. Until the early 20th century, construction was largely limited to the slightly higher ground along old natural river levees and bayous, since much of the rest of the land was swampy and subject to frequent flooding. This gave the 19th century city the shape of a crescent along a bend of the Mississippi, the origin of the nickname The Crescent City. In the 1910s engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wood enacted his ambitious plan to drain the city, including large pumps of his own design which are still used. All rain water must be pumped up to the canals which drain into Lake Pontchartrain. Wood's pumps and drainage allowed the city to expand greatly in area.
Canal Street, looking away from the river, 1920s
In the 1920s an effort to "modernize" the look of the city removed the old cast-iron balconies from Canal Street, the city's commercial hub. In the 1960s another "modernization" effort replaced the Canal Streetcar Line with busses. Both of these moves came to be regarded as mistakes long after the fact, and the streetcars returned to a portion of Canal Street at the end of the 1990s, and construction to restore the entire line was completed in April of 2004.
The suburbs saw great growth in the 2nd half of the 20th century; the largest suburb today is Metairie, which borders New Orleans to the west. Metairie is not incorporated and is a part of Jefferson Parish.
While long one of the USA's most visited cities, tourism boomed in the last quarter of the 20th century, becoming a major force in the local economy.
Areas of the French Quarter and Central Business District which were long oriented towards local residential and business uses switched to largely catering to the tourist industry.
A century after the Cotton Centennial Exhibition, New Orleans hosted another World's Fair, the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition.
A view across Uptown New Orleans, with the Central Business District in the background, 1990s
New Orleans is well known for its Creole culture and the persistence of Voodoo by a few of its residents, as well as for its music, food, architecture, and good times.
New Orleans is usually pronounced by locals "Noo Or-lins" or "Noo OR-lee-anns". The distinctive local accent is unlike either Cajun or the stereotypical Southern accent so often misportrayed by film and television actors. It is similar to a New York "Brooklynese" accent to people unfamiliar with. There are many theories to how the accent came to be, but it likely results from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water, and the fact that many of the immigrant groups who reside in Brooklyn also immigrated to New Orleans (Irish, Italians, and Germans being among the largest groups). Unfortunately, this distinctive accent is dying out generation by generation; it is usually attested much more strongly by older members of the population. Also notable are lexical items specific to the city, such as "lagniappe" (pronounced LAN-yap) meaning "a little something extra," or using terms like "neutral ground" for a median.
The City has the nicknames the Crescent City, the Big Easy, the Paris of America, and the City that Care Forgot.
Many visitors consider New Orleans' motto to be "Laissez les bons temps rouler",
or, "Let the good times roll."
New Orleans created its own spin on the old tradition of military brass band funerals; traditional New Orleans funerals with music feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) on the way to the cemetery and happy music (hot jazz) on the way back. Such traditional musical funerals still take place when a local musician, a member of a club, krewe, or benevolent society, or a noted dignitary has passed. Until the 1990s most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music", but out of town visitors have long dubbed them "jazz funerals". Younger bands, especially those based in the Treme neighborhood, have embraced the term and now have funerals featuring only jazz music.
New Orleans has always been a center for music with its intertwined European, Latin American, and African-American cultures. The city engendered jazz with its brass bands. Decades later it was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. In addition, the nearby countryside is the home of Cajun music, Zydeco music, and Delta blues.
The city is also famous for its food. Specialties include beignets, square-shaped fried pastries that are sometimes called French doughnuts (served with coffee and chicory "au lait"); Po'boy and Italian Muffaletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell and other seafoods; etouffee , jambalaya, gumbo, and other Creole dishes; and the Monday evening favorite of red beans and rice. (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "red beans and ricely yours".)
A true-color satellite image of New Orleans taken on NASA's Landsat 7
Government and law
New Orleans has a mayor-council government. City Govt Site The city council consists of 5 councilmembers that are elected by district and 2 at large councilmembers. Mayor C. Ray Nagin, Jr. was elected in May, 2002.
The New Orleans Police Department provides professional police services to the public in order to maintain order and protect life and property. The Orleans Parish civil sheriff's employees serve (deliver) papers involving lawsuits. The Criminal Sheriff's department maintains the parish prison system.
By law and government, the city of New Orleans and the parish of Orleans Parish are one and the same . Before the city of New Orleans became co-extensive with Orleans Parish, Orleans Parish was home to numerous smaller communities. Some of these communities within Orleans Parish have historically had separate identities from the city of New Orleans, such as Irish Bayou , ]. Algiers, Louisiana was a separate city through 1870. As soon as Algiers became a part of New Orleans, Orleans Parish ceased being separate from the city of New Orleans.
New Orleans has only one major interstate highway that travels through the city proper, I-10. Interstate 10's spur highways of I-510 and I-610 also travel through the city proper. There are also expressways which travel through New Orleans. One, the Pontchartrain Expressway (U.S. Highway 90's business route), becomes the Westbank Expressway south of the Mississippi River. Along its route west then northwest from the Crescent City Connection bridge to its terminus at I-10 near the Superdome, the Pontchartrain Expressway follows the path of the former New Basin Canal, dug in the 19th century by thousands of immigrant (mostly Irish) laborers, and filled in in 1947. Some of the older warehouse structures still standing along the Pontchartrain Expressway can trace their roots to their days along the banks of the canal.
The Greater New Orleans area has several interstate highways: I-12, which travels north of Lake Pontchartrain; I-55, which starts in Laplace; I-59, which starts in St. Tammany Parish; and I-310, another spur highway of I-10, which runs from Kenner to Boutte, Louisiana. In Slidell, I-59 and I-12 both end at an interchange with I-10, which turns south toward New Orleans proper. There are also plans to extend I-49 from Lafayette to New Orleans. The route would follow U.S. Highway 90 and the Westbank Expressway, placing the southern terminus at I-10 behind the Superdome. The southern termini of US Highways 11 and 61 are in New Orleans.
Public transit around New Orleans proper is operated by the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). In addition to the many bus routes, there are three active streetcar lines moved by electric motors powered by dc wires overhead.
The St. Charles line (green cars, formerly connecting New Orleans with the then independent suburb of Carrollton) is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in New Orleans and a historic landmark.
The Riverfront line (also known as the Ladies in Red since the cars are painted red) which runs parallel to the river from Canal Street through the French Quarter to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District.
The recently restored Canal Street line (which uses the Riverfront line tracks from Esplanade Street to Canal Street, then branches off down Canal Street and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art).
The green cars of the Saint Charles line are maintained by RTA employees and the red cars of the Riverfront and Canal Street lines were built by RTA employees.
The city is also the scene of the Tennessee Williams play "A Streetcar Named Desire." The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948, but may be restored as a light rail streetcar line.
The metropolitan area is served by Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport (IATA code MSY, ICAO code KMSY), which serves multiple millions of passengers with nearly 300 nonstop flights per day to or from destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. The airport also handles a significant amount of charter operations from Europe, though no European airline offers year-round scheduled service to the gateway. MSY features multiple daily operations from cargo-only operators as well, and serves as a nonstop gateway to Mexico for Federal Express.
Armstrong International Airport is owned by the City of New Orleans, but is located within the city of Kenner.
Within the city itself is Lakefront Airport , which is a general aviation airport, and the New Orleans Downtown Heliport, located on the roof of the Louisiana Superdome's parking garage. There are also several regional airports located throughout the metropolitan area.
The Port of New Orleans handles about 145 million short tons (132 million metric tons) of cargo a year and is the largest faction of the Port of South Louisiana, the latter being the largest and busiest shipping port in the western hemisphere and the fourth busiest in the world.
About 5,000 ships from about 60 nations dock at the Port of New Orleans annually. The chief exports are grain and other foods from the Midwestern United States and petroleum products. The leading imports include chemicals, cocoa beans, coffee, and petroleum. The port handles more trade with Latin America than does any other U.S. gateway, including Miami/South Florida.
New Orleans is also a busy port for barges. The barges use the nation's two main inland waterways, the Mississippi River and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, which meet at New Orleans. The port of New Orleans handles about 50,000 barges yearly.
There are also two ferries that cross the river near the Garden district and the French Quarter. These ferries are free of charge to pedestrians, but motorists pay a $1 fee to cross on them.
It is an industrial and distribution center, and a major U.S. seaport. New Orleans is considered one of the busiest seaports in the United States and as well in the world. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers built the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal in the mid-20th century to accommodate New Orleans' barge traffic.
Like Houston, New Orleans is located in proximity to the Gulf of Mexico and the many oil rigs lying just offshore. There are a substantial number of oil companies that either have their regional headquarters if not world headquarters within New Orleans' corporate limits, such as:
The federal government and military, especially the Navy and NASA, has a significant presence in the area with a NASA facility, Michoud Assembly Facility located in the eastern portion of Orleans Parish. Lockheed-Martin also has a large manufacturing facility located in the Greater New Orleans area that produces external fuel tanks for space shuttles.
Other companies with a significant presence in New Orleans include:
New Orleans is one of the most visited cities in the United States, thus tourism is one of the major staple in the area's economy. The city's colorful Carnival celebrations during the pre-Lenten season, centered on the French Quarter, draw particularly large crowds. Mardi Gras is a tradition that stretches back for years. During this time, Bourbon street is closed and open only to pedestrians or police. The Sugar Bowl game, played in early January, is a major tourist attraction, as well as the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival .
New Orleans is home to Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, Dillard University, Southern University at New Orleans , Xavier University of Louisiana, the University of New Orleans, and Delgado Community College.
New Orleans is the home of the New Orleans Saints National Football League team. The city also has an Arena Football League team, the New Orleans VooDoo, owned by the Saints' owner. The New Orleans Hornets of the National Basketball Association moved to the city starting in the 2002–2003 season; they were previously based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The New Orleans Zephyrs AAA minor league baseball team plays in adjacent Metairie.
Historical teams included the New Orleans Pelicans baseball team (1887–1959), the New Orleans Night of the Arena Football League (1991–1992), and the New Orleans Brass ice hockey team (1997–2003). Former basketball teams were the New Orleans Buccaneers (c. 1967–1970), and the New Orleans Jazz (1974–1980) which became the Utah Jazz.
New Orleans is on the banks of the Mississippi River about 100 miles upriver from the Gulf of Mexico at 30.07°N, 89.93°W. New Orleans is a unique city because some areas of the city range from 1 foot to 6 feet below sea level. In addition to the urban areas of the city, New Orleans includes undeveloped wetland, especially in the east. This makes New Orleans very flood-prone, so if it rains more than 1 inch there is usually some form of area flooding. Because of this, nearly all of New Orleans' cemeteries use above ground crypts rather than underground burial.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 907.0 km² (350.2 mi²). 467.6 km² (180.6 mi²) of it is land and 439.4 km² (169.7 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 48.45% water.
- Central Business District
- Canal Street
- Poydras Avenue
- Old American Quarter
- Old Warehouse District
- Bayou St. John
- Mid City
- Old Gentilly
- Gentilly Woods
- Pontchartrain Park
- New Orleans East
- Algiers Point
- English Turn
- Lower Coast
As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 484,674. This figure does not include the suburbs in neighboring Jefferson Parish, Saint Bernard and other nearby communities; the Greater New Orleans Metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of about 1.3 million.
Greater New Orleans has many major attractions, from the world-renowned Bourbon Street and the French Quarter's notorious nightlife to St. Charles Avenue, home to Tulane and Loyola Universities; many stately 19th century mansions; and Audubon Park and Audubon Zoo.
Favorite tourist scenes in New Orleans include the French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter"), which dates from the French and Spanish eras and is bounded by the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, Canal Street and Esplanade Ave. A popular visiting spot in the quarter is the French Market (including the Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets). The Natchez, an authentic steamboat with a calliope tours the Mississippi twice daily.
Other significant areas and sites in the city include:
Greater New Orleans is home to numerous year-around celebrations from Mardi Gras to its New Years' celebration. New Orleans' most famous celebration is its Carnival Season. The Carnival season is often known (especially by out-of-towners) by the name of the last and biggest day, Mardi Gras (literally, "Fat Tuesday"), which is held just before the beginning of the Christian liturgical season of Lent. Mardi Gras celebrations include parades and floats; participants toss strings of cheap colorful beads and doubloons to the crowds. The Mardi Gras season is kicked off with the only parade allowed through the French Quarter (Vieux Carre), a walking parade aptly named Krewe du Vieux. Main article: New Orleans Mardi Gras.
The largest of the city's many musical festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. "Jazz Fest", its common name, is one of the largest music festivals in the nation, and features crowds coming from all over the world to experience a wonderful time (including music, food, arts, crafts, and of course the Louisiana heat). Despite the name, it features not only jazz but a large variety of music, including both native Louisiana music and nationally-known popular music artists.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 484,674 people, 188,251 households, and 112,950 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,036.4/km² (2,684.3/mi²). There are 215,091 housing units at an average density of 459.9/km² (1,191.3/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 28.05% European American, 67.25% African American, 0.20% Native American, 2.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, and 1.28% from two or more races. 3.06% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 188,251 households out of which 29.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% are married couples living together, 24.5% have a female householder with no husband present, and 40.0% are non-families. 33.2% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.48 and the average family size is 3.23.
In the city the population is spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.7% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 83.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $27,133, and the median income for a family is $32,338. Males have a median income of $30,862 versus $23,768 for females. The per capita income for the city is $17,258. 27.9% of the population and 23.7% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 40.3% of those under the age of 18 and 19.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
New Orleans has a subtropical climate with mild winters and hot, humid summers. In January, morning lows average around 43 °F, and daily highs around 62 °F. In July, lows average 74 °F, and highs average 91 °F. New Orleans is especially vulnerable to hurricanes from June to November. On average, 59.74 in. of precipitation fall annually.
On rare occasions, snow will fall, the most recent being on Christmas in 2004. On December 25th, a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. Before that, the last white Christmas, in 1954, brought 4.5 inches or 11.3 centimeters to the city, its largest snowfall ever.
Famous New Orleanians
New Orleanians who attained note or fame have included:
- Louis Armstrong, musician & entertainer
- Vernel Bagneris , writer, director, actor, dancer
- Dave Bartholomew, musician, composer, promoter
- P.G.T. Beauregard, general & inventor
- Sidney Bechet, musician
- E. J. Bellocq, photographer
- Terrence Blanchard , musician & composer
- Buddy Bolden, musician, "inventor of jazz"(?)
- James Booker, musician
- Poppy Z. Brite, writer
- George Washington Cable, writer
- Truman Capote, writer
- Kitty Carlisle, entertainer
- Alton "Big Al" Carson, blues singer
- Patricia Clarkson, actor
- Harry Connick, Jr., musician and entertainer
- Harry Connick, Sr. , district attorney, singer
- Edmond Dede musician, composer
- Ellen DeGeneres comedian, talk show host
- Ernie K. Doe , singer, "Emperor of the Universe"
- Fats Domino, musician
- Clyde Drexler, former NBA star, soon to be a member of the Basketball Hall of Fame
- Marshall Faulk, football star (St. Louis Rams)
- Ruth Fertel, founder of Ruth's Chris Steak House
- Pete Fountain, musician
- Jim Garrison, district attorney
- George Girard, musician
- Louis Moreau Gottschalk, pianist & composer
- Shirley Ann Grau, writer
- Bryant Gumbel, television anchor
- John Hampson , inventor of "venetian" blinds
- Marie Alice Heine first American Princess of Monaco
- Clarence "Frogman" Henry, singer & musician
- Lillian Hellman, writer
- George Herriman, Krazy Kat cartoonist
- Al Hirt, musician
- Cheryl Holdridge, actress and Mouseketeer
- Mahalia Jackson, gospel singer
- Dr. John, musician
- Earl King, musician
- Stalebread Lacombe , self-proclaimed "inventor of jazz"
- Papa Jack Laine, bandleader
- Dorothy Lamour, actress
- Mary Landrieu, U.S. Senator
- Moon Landrieu, judge and politician
- Nick LaRocca, self-proclaimed "inventor of jazz"
- Josef Delarose Lascaux , inventor of cotton candy (candy floss)
- John Larroquette, actor
- Marie Laveau, Voodoo Queen
- Elmore Leonard, author
- Professor Longhair, musician
- Peyton Manning, Indianapolis Colts quarterback
- Branford Marsalis, musician
- Ellis Marsalis, musician & educator
- Wynton Marsalis, musician
- Louise S. McGehee ,educator
- Adah Isaacs Menken , actress
- Lizzie Miles, singer
- Deacon John Moore, musician & bandleader
- Morgus The Magnificent
- Paul Morphy, world chess champion
- Garrett Morris, comedian
- Jelly Roll Morton, musician & composer, self-proclaimed "inventor of jazz"
- The Neville Brothers, musicians & singers
- Joe "King" Oliver, musician
- Dr. Alton Ochsner, surgeon & medical researcher
- Chris Owens; Burlesque performer and entrepreneur
- Nicholas Payton , musician
- Marguerite Piazza , operatic soprano
- P.B.S. Pinchback, politician
- Louis Prima, musician & entertainer
- Mac Rebennack "Dr. John"
- Anne Rice, writer of vampire tales and other Gothic fiction
- Norbert Rilleaux, inventor, engineer
- Clay Shaw, businessman
- Rhonda Shear, beauty queen, television host
- Richard Simmons, entertainer
- John Kennedy Toole, writer of A Confederacy of Dunces
- Allen Toussaint, musician, composer, record producer
- Ben Turpin, silent film comedian
- Ray Walston, actor
- A. Baldwin Wood, inventor & engineer
- Andrew Young, politician & statesman
Notable non-native residents have included:
- Stephen Ambrose, historian and University of New Orleans professor
- Harry Anderson, actor
- John Goodman, actor
- Lafcadio Hearn, writer
- Lenny Kravitz, musician
- Emeril Lagasse, chef, writer & TV host
- Dr. Mysterian, syndicated psychic
- Paul Prudhomme, chef
- Trent Reznor, musician
- Tennessee Williams, playwright