Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. 174 awards have been given as of 2004.
List of Nobel laureates
1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s - 1990s - 2000s
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1940s
The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
Isidor Isaac Rabi
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"
Percy Williams Bridgman
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics "
Sir Edward Victor Appleton
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer "
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
Hideki Yukawa (湯川 秀樹)
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1960s
Donald Arthur Glaser
"for the invention of the bubble chamber"
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name". See: Mossbauer effect
Lev Davidovich Landau (Лев Давидович Ландау)
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
Eugene Paul Wigner
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Николай Геннадиевич Басов), and Aleksandr Prokhorov (Александр Михайлович Прохоров)
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser- laser principle"
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga (朝永 振一郎), Julian Schwinger, and Richard P. Feynman
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
Hans Albrecht Bethe
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Luis Walter Alvarez
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1970s
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Louis Eugene Félix Néel
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
"for his invention and development of the holographic method "
John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory "
Leo Esaki (江崎 玲於奈) and Ivar Giaever
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Brian David Josephson
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"
Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson, and Leo James Rainwater
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting (丁肇中 Pinyin: Dīng Zhàozhōng)
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind". In other words: for discovery of the as it confirmed the idea that J/Ψ particle baryonic matter (such as the nuclei of atoms) is made out of quarks.
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, and John Hasbrouck van Vleck
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (Пётр Леонидович Капица)
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1990s
Jerome Isaac Friedman, Henry Way Kendall , and Richard Edward Taylor
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"
Bertram Neville Brockhouse
"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
Clifford Glenwood Shull
"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"
Martin Lewis Perl
"for the discovery of the tau lepton"
"for the detection of the neutrino"
David Morris Lee , Douglas Dean Osheroff, and Robert Coleman Richardson
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
Steven Chu(朱棣文, pinyin: zhū dìwén), Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Daniel Phillips
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst Ludwig Störmer, and Daniel Chee Tsui(崔琦, pinyin: cuī qí)
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations". In other words, the discovery of the Quantum Hall effect from an experiment in 1982, which basically found conditions that allowed for observation of fractionally charged electrons.
Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"
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