The Piano Sonata No. 32 in C minor, Opus 111, is the last of Ludwig van Beethoven's piano sonatas. The work was written in 1821-1822.
The work is in two highly contrasting movements:
- Maestoso; Allegro con brio ed appassionato
- Arietta: Adagio molto, semplice e cantabile
The first movement, like many other Beethoven's works in C minor, is stormy and impassioned. It abounds in diminished seventh chords, as in for instance in the first full bar of the opening introduction:
The final movement, in C major, is a set of variations on a 16-bar theme, with a brief modulating interlude and final coda. The last two variations are famous for introducing small notes which constantly divide the bar in 36 resp. 27 parts, which is very uncommon.
A performance will typically last 9 minutes for the first, and 15 minutes for the second movement.
The work is one of the most famous compositions of the composer's "late period" and is widely performed and recorded. The pianist Robert Taub has called it "a work of unmatched drama and transcendence ... the triumph of order over chaos, of optimism over anguish." 1.
| style="vertical-align: top;" | Beethoven - Sonata opus 111 -2.ogg (info)
| style="font-size: 91%; padding: 0 0 0.5em 0;" | Piano Sonata No. 32 in C minor, 2nd movement