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The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. It is sometimes also used by ministers of other religions.
It comes from the Latin "reverendus" meaning "that which is to be revered".
English Anglican usage is for deacons and priests to be the Reverend, deans to be the Very Reverend, and abbots and bishops to be the Right Reverend and archbishops to be the Most Reverend. It is properly used with Christian name (or initials) and surname, e.g. "The Reverend John Smith" or "The Reverend J. F. Smith". Use of the prefix with the surname alone, e.g. "The Reverend Smith" is considered a solecism in traditional circles (although "The Reverend Mr Smith" is correct, if slightly archaic). So also with the use of the prefix as a mode of address: traditionally, priests are referred to as "Mr Smith" (or "Father Smith" in more Catholic circles) unless they have another title, such as Canon, or simply by the office they hold, such as "Vicar", "Rector", etc.
Among Roman Catholics, a priest or deacon is the Reverend, various prelates below bishop along with Chaplains of His Holiness are the Reverend Monsignor, and any bishop is the Most Reverend. However, none of these are ever addressed as reverend alone. Instead, priests are addressed as "Father", prelates as "Monsignor", and bishops as "Excellency", though "Reverend" or "Most Reverend" may be appended to either where appropriate.
Note that "reverend" is an honorific that is properly used as an adjective before someone's name. It is not a noun and it is not a synonym for "minister." Thus, it would be incorrect to say that someone "is a reverend," using the word as the name of a job or role.
The Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University is formally known as as "The Reverend the Vice-Chancellor", even if he is not a clergyman.
A few Christian religious traditions reject use of the term Reverend for human beings, maintaining that the title is reserved for God alone. (See Psalm 111:9 and Matthew 23:5-10.)