Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani III (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. He is currently Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Giuliani Partners LLC, which he founded in January 2002.
Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Giuliani attended Manhattan College and graduated from New York University School of Law with honors.
Giuliani first gained national prominence as the federal U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. In that position he prosecuted numerous high-profile cases, including indictments of leading Wall Street figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken for insider trading. Giuliani attracted some criticism for arranging very public arrests of people, then dropping charges for lack of evidence instead of going to trial.
Giuliani was subsequently appointed the third-ranking official in the U.S. Department of Justice. He successfully argued on behalf of the U.S. government, in a high-profile case, that there was "no political repression" in Haiti under President Jean-Claude Duvalier, aka "Baby Doc".
Giuliani first ran as the Republican candidate for mayor in 1989 but he lost the contest to succeed Ed Koch to Democrat David Dinkins.
Rudy Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat, before registering as an Independent. Afterward, he finally decided on being a Republican.
In his first term as mayor, Giuliani pursued an aggressive and very public policing policy in conjunction with Bill Bratton who he appointed as NYPD Commissioner in 1994. Although detractors note that the crime rate was already steadily declining when Giuliani entered office, he is often credited with 'cleaning up' New York City. His focus on this issue in press conferences and other public events, combined with the declining crime rate, convinced the media and the public that New York city was no longer a crime-infested metropolis.
However, Giuliani's aggressive tactics, described by former Mayor Dinkins as assuming that the ends justify the means (interview with CourtTV), required vastly more arrests when criminal descriptions were vague. Many argue that the NYPD's new policies curtailed the civil liberties of innocent citizens, particularly minorities. (He was sued over 2 dozen times on First Amendment issues and lost each case.) Even the Deputy Mayor, Rudy Washington, was subjected to harassment by NYPD. Of numerous instances of unarmed black men killed or brutalized by NYPD under the Giuliani administration, the best-known are the shooting of Amadou Diallo and the assault of Abner Louima.
Giuliani pursued similarly aggressive real estate policies. The Times Square redevelopment project saw Times Square transformed from a run-down center for businesses ranging from tourist attractions and peep shows to a high-price district filled with family-oriented stores and theaters, including the MTV studios and a massive Disney store and theater. Throughout his term, Giuliani pursued the construction of new sports stadiums in Manhattan, a goal in which he did not succeed, though new minor league baseball stadiums opened in Brooklyn, for the Brooklyn Cyclones, and in Staten Island, for the Staten Island Yankees.
Giuliani, after being elected, avoided one-on-one interviews with the press, preferring to only speak to them at press conferences or on the steps of City Hall. Giuliani made frequent visits to The Late Show with David Letterman television show, sometimes appearing as a guest and sometimes participating in comedy segments. In one highly publicized appearance that took place shortly after his election, Giuliani filled a pothole in the street outside the Ed Sullivan theater.
He ran an aborted campaign for U.S. Senate in 2000 against Hillary Rodham Clinton, withdrawing because of prostate cancer and the fallout from his relationship with Judith Nathan (he was married at the time to Donna Hanover, but they later divorced, and in late 2002 he became engaged to marry Nathan). He and Hanover have one son and one daughter. He married Nathan in May 2003.
Since the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center, Giuliani has been widely hailed for his calm and effective leadership in the crisis. For this, he was named TIME magazine's Person of the Year for 2001 and was given an honorary knighthood by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on February 13, 2002, entitling him to style himself Rudolph Giuliani, KBE.
After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani built a security consulting business and gave speeches. On December 1, 2004 his consulting firm announced it purchased accounting firm Ernst & Young's investment banking unit. The new investment bank will be known as Giuliani Capital Advisors LLC and will advise companies on acquisitions, restructurings and other strategic issues.
In addition, Giuliani is a fan of Nextel Communications, a large distributor of two-way walkie-talkie telephones. Giuliani's Nextel telephone, now housed in a September 11th exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum of American History, continued working on September 11th and is a phone he was rarely without on the days that followed September 11th.
Giuliani, who was a vocal supporter of the reelection of George W. Bush in the 2004 election, was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security during Bush's second term. Giuliani turned down the offer and instead recommended former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. That move backfired after Kerik withdrew his nomination after it was revealed he had hired an illegal immigrant as a nanny and failed to pay the employer's taxes on her wages.  It was also revealed that Kerik, a married man, had two mistresses, at one point simultaneously. He is also rumored to have mob ties, although those are unproven.
Giuliani is often mentioned as a potential challenger to Senator Clinton in the 2006 Senate race in New York. Unconfirmed reports began surfacing in early 2005 that he may also be considering a run for Governor of New York if George Pataki declines to run for reelection. He is also widely reported to be considering a run for the Presidency in 2008. One obstacle to such a national campaign would be his support for reproductive rights. The vast majority of Republican voters and officeholders, along with some Democrats, support more restrictions on abortion than are currently permitted under the Roe v. Wade decision. Members of the Christian right bloc, which exerts considerable influence in the Republican Party, have already announced their intention to oppose Giuliani or any other pro-choice candidate , though anecdotal evidence suggests that even among these voters, he enjoys some support.  Early 2008 Presidential polls show him with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support.
- "We only see the oppressive side of authority. Maybe it comes out of our history and our background. What we don't see is that freedom is not a concept in which people can do anything they want, be anything they can be. Freedom is about authority. Freedom is about the willingness of every single human being to cede to lawful authority a great deal of discretion about what you do and how you do it."