Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeast Asia that comprises the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, and surrounding smaller islands. The eastern boundary of Sundaland is the Wallace Line, first identified by Alfred Russel Wallace, which marks the eastern boundary of the Asia's land mammal fauna, and is the boundary of the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. The islands east of the Wallace line are known as Wallacea, and are considered part of Australasia.
The islands of Sundaland rest on Asia's shallow continental shelf. During the ice ages, sea levels were lower and all of Sundaland was an extension of the Asian continent. As a result, the islands of Sundaland are home to many Asian mammals, including monkeys, apes, tigers, tapirs, and rhinoceros. The Wallace line, which includes the Lombok Strait between Bali and Lombok, and the Makassar Strait between Borneo and Sulawesi, marks the end of the Asian continental shelf, and the islands of Wallacea are separated from Asia and from Australia and New Guinea by deep ocean.
Botanists often include Sundaland, Wallacea, the Philippines and New Guinea as a single Floristic province of Malesia, based on similarities in their flora, which is predominantly of Asian origin.
Ecoregions of Sundaland
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests
- Sumatran tropical pine forests (Sumatra)
Montane grasslands and shrublands
- Kinabalu montane alpine meadows (Borneo)