Texcoco is a city in México State, Mexico, located to the east of Mexico City at 19.52°N, 98.88°W. The city is about 2,250 meters above sea level. In 2003 Texcoco had an estimated population of about 109,000 people.
Historically, the name of the city has sometimes been rendered as Tezcuco.
The city has some impressive Spanish colonial era architecture, including a large convent and the cathedral built atop the base of a Pre-Columbian pyramid.
Texcoco was founded in the 12th century. It was an independent Nahuatl city state. It allied itself with Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City) early on, and became the second most important city politically in the Aztec Empire, by agreement receiving two-fifths of the tribute collected by the Empire. The city was known as a center of learning within the Empire, and had a famed library including books from older Mesoamerican civilizations.
King Nezahualcoyotl was a noted poet, philosopher, and patron of the arts. He also had a large botanical and zoological garden, with specimens of plants and animals from throughout the Empire and from the more distant lands which the Empire traded with.
Nezahualcoyotl's son King Nezahualpilli continued the tradition of patronizing the arts.
In 1520 the troops of Hernán Cortés occupied the city and killed the last independent king Cacamatzin. From then through 1521 the Spanish conquistador made Texcoco his base for planning the conquest of Tenochtitlan.
From 1827 to 1830 Texcoco was the capital of Mexico State.