Urology is the field of surgery that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and of the male reproductive system. It is "multidisciplinary" in that the discipline includes management of "medical" (ie., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections and "surgical" problems such as the correction of congenital abnormalities of the urinary / reproductive systems and the surgical management of cancers involving the urinary and (male) reproductive organs. Only around 20% of Urology patients actually require surgery. It includes the urethra, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, the male reproductive organs including the foreskin, testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate.
Urologists are also involved in the assessment and treatment of incontinence. Urodynamics is the study of the pressure within the urinary system and Urologists often use diagnostic techniques such as flow cystometry or ambulatory urodynamic profiles to determine the best method of treatment for the patient. This could include medical prescription (e.g. oxybutinin or multiple alpha-blockers) or surgical intervention (e.g. bladder "clam" augmentation).
Urology is closely related to the medical fields of nephrology, andrology and gynecology. In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive systems are close together, and often both affected by disease or disorders of one or the other.
Links moved from medicine, to be sorted and explained: